James Hack Tuke 1819-96
Assisted emigration was a scheme by which people in the most deprived areas of Ireland were helped to emigrate to the U.S. and Canada in search of a better life. Known as “The Tuke Fund” it was named after James Hack Tuke, a Quaker from York who for over 50 years sought to address starvation and deprivation in the West of Ireland. The Tuke’s Fund was inaugurated in March 1882 its object being “the assistance to emigration of the small holders of the West of Ireland”.
Every detail was thought of to ensure the comfort and welfare of the emigrants. James Tuke had previously travelled to the U.S. and Canada to ascertain suitable areas for the settlement of the emigrants. Nobody should be forced to go. Only families would be assisted, thereby a holding would become vacant which could be given to other smallholders improving their circumstances.
Where they could afford it the emigrants would be asked to contribute something towards the cost, but due to the extreme poverty of the people this was not possible. Emigrants would only be sent to the United States if they could produce recent letters from friends who were willing to help them, others were sent to the villages and small towns of Canada.
Each family would receive new clothing for the journey, be booked through to their destination and given a sum of “landing money” on arrival at the port. And at least one person, in each family must be able to speak English. During the Assisted Emigration Period of the years 1883-84 just over 3,300 people from North West Mayo, emigrated on steamships of the Allan Line from Blacksod Bay, County Mayo bound for Boston and Quebec.
James Hack Tuke 1819-96
Is é a bhí san eisimirce chuidithe scéim faoinar cuidíodh le daoine sna háiteanna ba bhoichte in Éirinn dul ar imirce go dtí na Stáit Aontaithe agus go Ceanada, iad sa tóir ar shaol níos fearr. Ainmníodh ‘an Ciste Tuke’ i gcuimhne James Hack Tuke, duine de Chumann na gCarad ó York, Shasana a d’oibrigh ar feadh breis is 50 bliain chun deireadh a chur leis an ngorta agus le díothacht in Iarthar na hÉireann. I Márta 1882 a bunaíodh Ciste Tuke. An cuspóir a bhí leis “cuidiú le sealbhóirí beaga talún in Iarthar na hÉireann dul ar imirce”.
Smaoiníodh ar gach uile ní a dhéanfadh leas agus compord na n-eisimirceach a chinntiú. Chuaigh James Tuke go Meiriceá agus go Ceanada chun áiteanna a bheadh feiliúnach do na heisimircigh a aimsiú. Ní chuirfí iallach ar dhuine ar bith imeacht in aghaidh a thola. Ní thabharfaí cuidiú ach do theaghlaigh, ionas go bhféadfaí na gabháltais fholmha a thabhairt do na feirmeoirí beaga eile, rud a chuirfeadh feabhas ar a gcás.
Má bhí na daoine in acmhainn, iarradh orthu méid áirithe den chostas a sheasamh ach de bharr go raibh na daoine chomh bocht sin ní raibh siad ábalta sin a dhéanamh. Níor cuireadh eisimircigh go dtí na Stáit Aontaithe ach amháin má bhí litreacha acu ó chairde a bhí toilteanach cuidiú leo. Cuireadh daoine eile chuig sráidbhailte agus bailte beaga i gCeanada.
Bhí éadaí nua don turas le fáil ag gach teaghlach. Bhí a bpasáiste curtha in áirithe dóibh go ceann scríbe agus tugadh ‘ciste tosaigh’ dóibh nuair a bhain siad an calafort amach. Chaith Béarla a bheith ag duine i ngach teaghlach. Le linn Thréimhse na hEisimirce Cuidithe 1883-84, chuaigh breis is 3,300 duine ar imirce ó Mhaigh Eo Thiar Thuaidh ar longa gaile an Allan Line ó Chuan an Fhóid Duibh, Contae Mhaigh Eo, iad ag triall ar Bhostún agus ar Quebec.
Blacksod Bay Emigration Project
The famine of 1879 – 1880 is sometimes described as the last major Irish famine. In contrast with earlier subsistence crises, effective intervention, including assisted emigration, meant there was little excess mortality, even in badly affected areas such as County Mayo.
The Mission of the Blacksod Bay Emigration database is to make available the stories of the people of Erris, Achill and Newport West and the descendants of those who emigrated under the assisted emigration schemes initiated by the philanthropist, James Hack Tuke, between 1883 and 1884 when 3,350 people had their passage paid to North America.
It aims to document the people who left, where they came from and what happened to them in the United States and Canada; while at the same time demonstrating the impact which the exodus had on those who remained in Mayo.
It is hoped that the database will help the descendants of the emigrants in North America to engage with their relations and the community in the west of Ireland, and that their shared experiences will re-establish a bond between the Belmullet and Achill areas and those areas in the United States and Canada where the emigrants settled. This is the start of a process which will strengthen the connection between the descendants of the emigrants and the home place of their ancestors.
The people left together as a community with a sense of identity, they are now being remembered in this way.
Tionscadal Eisimirce Chuan an Fhóid Duibh
Déantar cur síos ar ghorta 1879-1880 mar an gorta mór deireanach. I gcomparáid le gortaí roimhe sin, de bharr idirghabháil éifeachtach, eisimirce chuidithe ina measc, ba bheag duine a bhásaigh dá bharr, fiú in áiteanna a bhí buailte go dona ag an ngorta i gcontae Mhaigh Eo.
Is é an aidhm atá ag tionscadal Eisimirce Chuan an Fhóid Duibh go mbeadh fáil ar scéalta dhaoine ó Iorras, ó Acaill agus ó Baile Uí Fhiacháin agus sliocht na ndaoine a chuaigh go Meiriceá faoi na scéimeanna eisimirce chuidithe a chuir an daonchara James Hack Tuke ar bun idir 1883 agus 1884 nuair a íocadh an bealach do 3,350 duine go Meiriceá Thuaidh.
Tá sé mar aidhm ag an tionscadal na daoine a d’imigh ón áit a chlárú, chomh maith leis an áit arbh as dóibh agus ar tharla dóibh sna Stáit Aontaithe agus i gCeanada; agus ag an am céanna an tionchar a bhí ag an mbánú orthusan a d’fhan i Maigh Eo a léiriú.
Táthar ag súil go mbeidh an bunachar ina chabhair do shliocht na n-eisimirceach i Meiriceá Thuaidh le teagmháil a dhéanamh lena ngaolta agus leis an bpobal in iarthar na hÉireann agus de bharr an stair atá i gcoitinn acu, go gcruthófar nasc as an nua idir Béal an Mhuirthead agus Acaill agus na háiteanna sin sna Stáit Aontaithe agus i gCeanada ar chuir na heisimircigh fúthu. Cuirfear tús le próiseas a neartóidh an ceangal idir sliocht na n-eisimirceach agus áit dhúchais a sinsear.
D’fhág na daoine in éineacht mar phobal, a bhféiniúlacht féin acu agus tá comóradh á dhéanamh orthu anois ar an mbealach seo.
Blacksod Bay Assisted Emigration of 1880’s Database is a database we created dedicated to the memory of the people of North West Mayo who emigrated to Canada and the United States in the years 1883-84 assisted by “The Tuke Fund”.
Please visit our Interactive page for the decendants of the above emigrants, Remembering the people of Erris, Achill and Newport West, County Mayo. “Our History is their history, and theirs is ours. By remembering the people who left we welcome back their descendants”
Tóstal Iorras – Launch of Blacksod Bay Emigration Project
“Ionad Deirbhile, Information & Heritage Centre, Eachléim, Blacksod, are marking the “Assisted Emigration from Blacksod Bay” of the 1880s with a Family Fun Day & Re-enactment walk from Belmullet to Blacksod following the route the emigrants from Achill, Newport, Belmullet & Erris regions would have taken to the ships. Special guests include; Atlantic Rhythm, Achill Pipe Band, Dr. Gerard Moran NUIM & a Craft Circle from throughout Mayo. A free bus will be provided on the day. This is a free event and everyone is welcome to attend. Atlantic Rhythm will be dressed in period clothing and everybody is welcome to join them in doing so. The Assisted Emigration was a scheme by which people in the most deprived areas of Ireland were helped to emigrate to the U.S. and Canada in search of a better life. Known as “The Tuke Fund” it was named after James Hack Tuke, a Quaker who for over 60 years sought to address starvation and deprivation in the West of Ireland.”